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A Comprehensive Guide to LCD Terminology

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More detailed LCD terminology

The following lists more detailed LCD terminology, which are reflected in the way of comparison table, and can also be browsed by search.

Abbr Name Chinese interpretation English Interpretation
a-Si amorphous silicon 以材料结构而言,amorphous的意思是指未结晶的状态。Amorphous silicon膜具有作为半导体材料之特性,可用plasma CVD装置在400℃以下的温度下形成。因此成为使用玻璃基板之主动矩阵(active matrix)方式液晶面板的TFT主力组件材料。 Amorphous means lacking distinct crystalline in material structure’s term. Amorphous silicon film has the quality that can be used as material of semiconductor. It can be formed by using plasma CVD equipment under temperature of 400 degree C. Therefore, it is the major material for manufacturing TFT of LCD panel, which uses glass substrate with active matrix.
a-Si TFT amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistor 以amorphous silicon为构成材料之电场效果型的薄膜晶体管。带有source、drain、gate三种电极之3端子组件。最常使用为主动矩阵(active matrix)液晶显示器的开关。 The Field Effect type TFT with amorphous silicon material contains three terminal components of three types of electrodes: source, drain, and gate. They are often used as the switch of active matrix type LCD.
ACF Anisotropic Conductive Film 异方性导电膜,指含有导电性粒子之热硬化或热可塑性的树脂薄膜。主要用于液晶显示面板与驱动IC之讯号传输连结,需针对不同之接合接口选择适合导电粒子及密度,一般而言用于fine pitch之导电粒子其直径约为3~5 um。 Anisotropic conductive film means the thermosetting or thermal plastic resin film which contains conductivity particle. It is used major in LCD panel, and to drive the signal connection, transmitting in IC. Different interface connection requires specific conductivity particles and density accordingly. Generally speaking, the diameter of conductivity particles, which used for fine pitch, should be three to five um.
Active area 在液晶显示面板中具有显示功能之画素总面积。 In LCD screen, it serves the purpose of showing the total surface area of functional pixels.
Active matrix 在画素或dot上设置主动组件,于写入期间激活主动组件而写入data电压、其它期间则关闭主动组件以维持电压之矩阵驱动方式。依据主动组件的种类区分为3端子型的TFT方式与2端子型的TFD(MIM)方式。2端子型的制造工程可简化。 It sets active components on pixel or dot, witch activate active component to write data voltage during the writing period, and during other period, it shut off active component to maintain voltage of matrix driving method. According to different types of active component, it is divided into either 3-terminal model TFT or 2-terminal model TFD (MIM) methods. The manufacturing process of 2-terminal model can be simplified.
Anti-glare treatment 在液晶面板表面设置凹凸,以降低镜面反射之处理。Anti-glare处理的程度是利用积分球式光线透过率量测方式,以全光线透过率与散乱光透过率的比定义的。 Convex and concave surface is configured on the LCD panel as the treatment to reduce the reflection of mirror. The extent of Anti-glare is to use the measuring method of light penetration of integral sphere model to define the ratio between the rate of full-light penetration and the rate of scatter light
Anti-reflection 在表面上包覆多层折射率不同的膜,用来消除界面的反射光之处理。 It is a treatment to eliminate reflection light from interface surface, by coating many layers of film with different reflecting rate on the surface.
Aperture ratio 单一画素中可透光面积与画素总面积之比值。开口率之大小与TFT所使用之金属导线特性及Cell制程能力有关。 It is the ratio of the luminary surface in a single pixel comparing to the surface of total pixels. The opening rate is determined by the nature of metal interconnect and the capability of Cell manufacturing of TFT.
APR® plate 液状紫外线硬化型树脂凸版。厚度从1.0~3.0都有,种类甚多,为了提供液体的转写效率,在画面部分的表面增加一层网状物。制版时,版系根据版体的直径,事先将画像缩小后制成。因为版即使在萤光灯下也会加促硬化,故保管上必须非常注意。(旭化成工业(株)的登记商标) There are many kinds of resin projecting plate of UV hardening model in liquid state with a thickness ranging from 1.0 to 3.0; for the purpose of elevating the efficiency of pattern transformation for the liquid, the surface of the picture portion has been mounted a layer of meshed stuff. When perform the plate making, the pattern has been miniaturized and then finished in accordance with the diameter of plate. Since the hardening of plate will be promoted even under fluorescent light, special attention is required for preservation. (Trademark of Asahi Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd ).
Array 指玻璃基板上已配置TFT等switching组件,但未成为Cell前的状态。 It is the state in which the screen has been equipped with TFT switching device, but it is still not a cell yet.
Aspect ratio 显像后的resist膜,或用蚀刻形成于基板上的pattern之深度与宽度的比。Aspect比= b/a(a:蚀刻的宽度,b:蚀刻的深度) It is the ratio between the depth and width of the pattern on the etched substrate or the resist film after pattern is developed. Aspect ratio = b/a (a : etching width, b : etching depth)
Back exposure 将已经形成在基板上的pattern作成光罩,由基板背面露光之方法 It is a method of making the semiconductor mast from well formed pattern on the substrate, and exposes the back of the substrate to light.
Backlight 由于液晶显示器为非发光型,为了强化显示的能见度,将液晶面板背面的光加以投射之装置。光源以萤光灯管为主流,分为冷阴极管与热阴极管。构造上可分为直下型与侧光型。 Because the LCD does not luminesce itself, and to re-enforce the visibility of it, there is a device to project the light from the back of a LCD panel. The majority of light source comes from the fluorescent light tube, which is divided into two different types: Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp and Hot Cathode Fluorescent Lamp. The structure can also divided into two different types: direct type and side light type.
Bezel LCD面板组件,用以维持╱保护B/L组件之外侧外壳。一般采用金属板之成形品。 It’s a part of the LCD screen, and used to maintain/protect the side shell of B/L components. Normally, it is a product from metal plate.
BM Black Matrix 在液晶面板所使用的color filter上,为了分离RGB各画素作成的格子状或条纹状的构造。BM亦具有预防外部光源造成TFT错误动作的功能。现在虽以单层铬、低反射铬为主流,但树脂BM也已相继投入市场。 BM is used to separate the grid or strip structure made from RGB pixels on the color filter applied on LCD panel. BM also serves another purpose of preventing the malfunction of TFT resulted from outside light source. Although, single layer and low reflection chromium are the majority in the market, but resin BM also becomes another popular product.
Cell 指在二片玻璃基板合起来后所形成的几微米的间隙内封入液晶材料的Panel。 Cell is the panel of liquid crystal that fills into the micro meter gap formed by combining two glasses substrates.
Cell gap 指TFT基板与color filter基板上ITO膜之间隙,间隙之大小会影响液晶显示面板之穿透率及液晶反应时间。 Cell Gap is the gap between ITO film on color filter substrate and TFT substrate. The size of the gap affects the transmittance of LCD display substrate and response time of liquid crystal.
CF Color Filter 为了使液晶彩色显示器能显示彩色,在液晶cell内构成的零件之一,在透明基板上依规则配列红、绿、蓝3个原色的pattern。Color filter一般是由遮光用的Black matrix、color显示用的着色pattern、保护着色pattern的透明保护膜、以及驱动液晶用的透明电极膜等4种要素所构成。 In order for LCD to generate colors, there is a pattern with Red, Green and Blue , which is one of the parts in the LC cell. Color filter is structured by 4 major components: Black Matrix to block light, pattern to display colors, transparent protection film made from protection pattern and transparent electrode film used for driver LC.
CIE chromaticity diagram 以平面表现色度坐标之图形。在XYZ表色系及X10Y10Z10表色系中,原则上采用x, y或x10y10的直接坐标,分别称为CIE1931色度图或CIE1964色度图。又称为xy色度图或x10y10色度图。 CIE chromaticity diagram shows the graph of 2 dimensional color coordinate. On the XYZ color graph and X10Y10Z10 color graph, it uses x, y or x10y10 direct coordinate, and they are called CIE1931 color graph or CIE 1964 color graph. It is also known as xy or x10y10 chromaticity diagram.
COF Chip On Film 直接将IC chip接续在可挠曲印刷电路板(flexible printed circuit board)的电极端子上之方式,为Chip On Film的简称。此种IC构装方法之特长为可挠曲印刷电路板之薄型化,其厚度约为TCP之1/3,可提高液晶显示模块构装之可*度。目前所使用之接合方式有导电膜、导电胶及共晶接合。 It is a simplified term of Chip On Film, which is a method of connecting IC chip to the electrode terminal of flexible printed circuit board. The specialty of this IC package method can thinner the flexible printed circuit board, which is about one third of thickness of TCP. It also increases the reliability of the liquid crystal display module. The current connecting processes used are: conductivity film, conductivity paste and eutectic conjunction.
COG Chip On Glass 直接将驱动IC之I/O与显示玻璃基板的电极端子面对面接合之方式,COG模块构装所使用之驱动IC必须先长凸块(bumping),液晶面板模块构装之凸块材质为Au,目前以ACF为接合材料之制程较成熟。 It is a process of connecting electrode terminal of display glass substrate and I/O of Driving IC directly to each other. The Driving IC must have bumping, and the material used for liquid crystal substrate bumping is Au. The manufacturing process, which uses ACF as its connecting material, is more matured.
COP Chip On Plastic 直接将IC chip接续在塑料基板的电极端子上之方式,为Chip On Plastic之简称。装设塑料基板液晶面板之driver IC时所使用的。 It is a simplified term of Chip On Plastic, which is a method of connecting IC chip to the electrode terminal of plastic substrate. It is used for setting the driver IC onto the liquid crystal panel of plastic substrate.
Cold cathode fluorescent tube 为Back light其中一种光源,采用金属阴极之萤光灯管。利用高电场引起发光放电,然后用此放电所产生的紫外线激发萤光体而发光之放电灯管。基于发热、寿命之考量,大多采用冷阴极管。 It is one of the light sources used in Back light, and it uses the fluorescent tube of metal cathode. The discharge tube that uses high electrical field to cause glow discharge and the ultra violet light generated from this type of discharge would trigger the fluorescent particle and glow. Considering the heat and life time factors, the cold cathode fluorescent tube is more frequently used.
Contrast ratio 液晶On╱Off时最大辉度与最小辉度之比。液晶依画面视角的不同,其contrast也会跟着改变,因此以最大的对比来表示。通常STN以10:1表示、TFT以100:1表示。 The ratio between the maximum and minimum brightness when the LC is On / Off. The contrast changes with different viewing angles, and therefore, maximum contrast ratio is used for display. Generally, STN is 10:1 and TFT is 100:1 for display.
CD Critical Dimension 一般是指100um以下的pattern线宽或间隔,为表示pattern位置之尺寸值。使用于露光量、现象条件、蚀刻条件等制程参数,或制品尺寸管理方面。 CD means the gap or width between patterns under 100 um, and it is to show the dimension measurement of location of pattern. It is used as a parameter of light exposure quantity, and etching conditions in manufacturing process or dimension management aspect of products.
Crosstalk 由于画素间信号干涉,使对比高的画面轮廓在背景部产生的拖曳现象。每个画素都设置理想switch的主动矩阵方式不会产生crosstalk。 Due to the signal interferences between pixels, the background would generate dragging phenomenon in high contrast screen. Cross talk can be eliminated by fixing activate matrix type of ideal switch on each pixel.
Dark defect 不随信号改变而一直保持低辉度状态的点状缺陷。 Dark defect is a kind of dot form fault that does not change with signals and keeps in low BRIL status.
Data line FT基板中传达显示信号之垂直方向的配线。因为接续在各画素TFT的Source电极或Drain 电极上,故又称为Source线或Drain线。线宽通常为数um到10um不等。 It is the perpendicular wiring used in TFT substrate to transfer display signals. Because it is connected with the Source electrode or Drain electrode on each pixel in TFT, it is also known as Source line or Drain line. The width of the line is often between few um to 10 um.
Dichroic Mirror 仅选择在特定的波长区域内的光来做反射的光学镜。一般是利用层积的多层膜的光之干涉经由反射而取出各式各样的颜色的光。使用在投写型的投影机上。 It is a kind of optical mirror that only reflects certain light in some chosen light spectrum. Normally, many layers of film to interfere with light and with reflection to generate various color of light. It is applied to projectors with poly-silicon LCD.
Dot 构成各画素的要素点(显示的最小构成点)。 Dot is the point that constructs each pixel. (the smallest display unit)
Driver IC 驱动液晶面板的回路或IC。Matrix显示有扫描电极(行电极)Driver与信号电极(列电极)Driver二种。由QFP变迁为TCP。多硅晶(poly-silicon)的面板则是直接将Driver IC形成在显示面板中。 It is the IC that drives the LCD. There two types of display matrix: Scanning electrode (column electrode) Driver and Signal electrode (row electrode) Driver. The package of driver changes from QFP to TCP. The Driver IC of poly-silicon LCD panel forms directly in the display screen.
Dual Scan 将液晶面板的配线自上下两端开始接续的方法。 It is a method of connecting continuously from top and bottom wiring in the LCD.
EWS engineering workstation 拥有color graphic display与高度演算能力,技术者为了能互动地执行LSI或electronics system之开发、设计所用的计算机。透过计算机网络与其它EWS相互接续而达到设计Data共有化,以构筑效率良好的分散设计环境。 It is a computer designed for high color graphic display calculation, and it is used for execute LSI interactively or for electronics system development. Through network, it can connect to other EWS to achieve data sharing designing, hence, better and efficient distributed deigning environment are built.
Flatness 大多指heat head与支撑台的平行度。热压着时,每个tool相互间的关系比平行度重要。 Most of the time, Flatness means the parallelism between the heat tool and support platform. When there is heat, the relationships between each tool is more important than the parallelism.
Flicker 画面辉度之周期性变动。也称为闪烁。出现Cross Talk较多的画面其Flicker也会较明显。其起因与Crosstalk相同。 Flicker is a periodic change of the brightness of the screen. Flicker is more obvious when there are more cross talk, and the cause of flicker is the same as Crosstalk.
FPC Flexible Printed Circuit 可挠曲印刷配线板。使用于实装有液晶driver IC的印刷基板与COG基板等界面上之配线板。 FPC means flexible printed circuit board. FPC is the circuit that applies to printing circuit with LC driver IC and COG circuit interface.
FCA Flip Chip Attachment 为face down bonding其中一种。指将LSI chip上的接续电极直接接续在基板或package的配线用电极上。一般是在LSI chip上形成焊锡bump与基板接续,但COG则是使用导电paste、ACF等来接续bump与基板。 FCA is one type of the face down bonding. It means attaching the connecting electrode of LSI chip directly to the circuit or wiring electrode of package. Generally, LSI chip forms the soldering bump and attach to the circuit, but COG uses conductivity paste, or ACF for attachment between bump and circuit.
FLCD Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display 指强诱电性液晶。材料使用sematic液晶,属于单纯matrix 方式,可做高速应答。虽然使用在大型panel上价格较便宜,但另一方面,由于很难做安定的配向,故在画面的要求上有其困难之处。 It uses sematic LC as its material, which belongs to simple matrix type, and has high speed response. Although it is cheaper to apply on large type panel, but on the other hand, it is very hard to achieve stability. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve quality of the screen.
Folding TCP 将实装后的TCP折弯一次或二次之形态的TCP。有助于面板边框area之狭小化。 Folding TCP is formed by folding the fixed TCP once or twice, and it helps to minimise the frame area of circuit.
GPS 以美国24个卫星传来的时间与位置等情报为基准而知道现在位置的方法。将这个情报与地图情报搭配使用的方法即可汽车导航系统。 Global Positioning System allows users to find out the time, and exact current location through 24 different satellites. Applying this system and map information achieves the vehicle navigation system.
Gray scale 指介于最大辉度与最小辉度之间的中间调显示。数字信号输入时,与2, 3, 4, 6, 8 bit相对应的有4, 8, 16, 64, 256阶调。模拟信号输入则可作无限阶调之显示。阶调显示的方式分为液晶驱动电压变化及frame间的时间调节。 Gray scale is for tuning the display between maximum and minimum brightness. When digital signal is input to it, according to 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 bit, there are 4, 8, 16, 64 and 256 different gray levels. Analogue input can be used for infinity level tuning display. There are two ways of gray scale: LC driving voltage tuning and frame rate control.
ILB Inner Lead Bonding 内引脚接合,指驱动IC之bump与Poly-imide tape上之Cu lead以Eutectic Bonding方式接合之制程。 ILB bonding is a manufacturing process which attach the bump of Driver IC to the Cu lead on poly-imide tape with Eutectic Bonding method.
Image sticking 经过长时间显示同一pattern后,切换至其它显示时,前面的pattern会长时间残留的现象。 After a long displaying time of the same color pattern, the color pattern would stay on the screen over a period of time, once switched to other color display.